- README guidelines discussion
- Organization, Documentation, Style
Organizing large projects
As projects grow in scope and complexity, organization becomes more important. Fortunately, Python makes it fairly easy to add structure as you go.
In Python it’s quick and easy to get started and test your ideas interactively in the shell. Unfortunately these explorations are ephemeral, and it’s difficult to make changes and run the program again, so we quickly move beyond this stage.
Your first Python script may be simply code from an interactive session pasted into a
.py file so that you can edit and re-run it (as well as share it with team mates).
We consider a Python program to be a more evolved version of a script, with defined functions, classes, documentation, etc.
As your program gets bigger, grows beyond what can comfortably fit in one file.
To create a module in Python, you simply write a
.py file as always.
Code in the module can then be imported from other modules using the filename (minus
For really big projects, you may even grow beyond a single directory. Python allows you to organize your modules into directories and refer to them as packages.
All you need to do is place a (possibly empty) file called
__init__.py in the folder along with your Python module files. Note: Your code for this class may never get quite this big and that’s ok. From a style perspective I would consider this going a bit too far with organization for the BrickBreaker example shown.
Read about Python modules for all the details.
We’ve added some more organization to the BrickBreaker example repository showing how a project might gradually evolve through these steps. Browse through the git history to see the changes over time.
Reorganize your project code into modules that group related code.
As a caveat, this type of major refactoring can create lots of merge conflicts if you are not careful. It is best to make sure everything is checked in first, do the exercise together as a team, and have test cases before and after the restructuring to make sure nothing breaks.
Style and Lint
As you move to more polished code that other people will read and contribute to, style and consistency count.
For a poetic take on “Pythonic” code, try typing
import this in Python.
The most definitive Python style guide is PEP8 (Python Enhancement Proposals are the mechanisms by which the language grows). It has a list of guidelines along with concrete examples - definitely worth a read.
Checking style rules is a good job for a computer, and one tool you can use to do this for you is pylint. “Linting” is the process of checking code without actually running it (think about picking pieces of lint off your sweater). You can even set this up to run continuously in your text editor as you write code.
Linting can even help you catch bugs. Check out this output for “Bad Kangaroo” from Think Python chapter 17.
... C: 1, 0: Missing module docstring (missing-docstring) W: 4, 4: Dangerous default value  as argument (dangerous-default-value) C: 12, 8: Variable name "t" doesn't conform to snake_case naming style (invalid-name) ...
Using mutable types as a default argument? Dangerous indeed - watch out!
pylint on your project code and analyze the results.
You don’t need to fix everything, but it’s best to know what rules you’re breaking and why.
In case we haven’t said it enough, proper documentation is vital to your work. As a general guideline, you should have:
- Docstring/header comment at the top of each module (file) explaining what it does
- Docstring for each class, method, and function
- Comments for sections of code that are complex enough to need explanation
One cool feature of docstrings is that Python can use them to automatically generate documentation.
The tool that does this is called
and it is what is used when you call
help() in Python.
Autogenerate documentation for your project using pydoc:
This will open a help file based on your docstrings (use q to quit). Make sure this help file would be adequate for someone using your code - try showing it to someone not on your team. Add to your documentation based on this feedback.
pydoc can also generate HTML documentation, which you can add to your project website if you like (not required). If you want to generate truly beautiful online documentation, check out Sphinx (the tool used to generate the Python documentation).